MDVIP Exercise Classroom Talk
For each cup of raw seeds, evenly coat with…
a 1-ounce (28-gram) serving contains:
Antioxidants can reduce inflammation and protect your cells from harmful free radicals. That’s why consuming foods rich in antioxidants can help protect against many diseases.
Animal studies have also shown that pumpkin seed oil may reduce high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels — two important risk factors for heart disease.
A 12-week study in 35 postmenopausal women found that pumpkin seed oil supplements reduced diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number of a reading) by 7% and increased “good” HDL cholesterol levels by 16%.
Other studies suggest that pumpkins’ ability to increase nitric oxide generation in your body may be responsible for its positive effects on heart health.
Nitric oxide helps expand blood vessels, improving blood flow and reducing the risk of plaque growth in your arteries.
This is especially important for people with diabetes, who may struggle to control their blood sugar levels.
Several studies have found that supplementing with pumpkin juice or seed powder reduced blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
The high magnesium content of pumpkin seeds may be responsible for its positive effect on diabetes.
A diet high in fiber can promote good digestive health.
Since pumpkin seeds are a rich source of zinc, they may improve sperm quality.
Consuming around 1 gram of tryptophan daily is thought to improve sleep.
You could incorporate them into meals by sprinkling them into salads, soups or cereals. Some people use pumpkin seeds in baking, as an ingredient for sweet or savory bread and cakes.
Hydrating for Performance
You should begin all workouts in a well-hydrated state and maintain hydration throughout your workout or competition. By maintaining your hydration you can maximize performance, improve your ability to recover and minimize injury. If you begin an event in a dehydrated state or become dehydrated while exercising you can have an increased rate of physical and mental fatigue. As little as 2 to 3 percent decrease in body weight from water (sweat) loss can cause a decrease in performance. Other consequences of dehydration include increased core temperature and heart rate, decreased blood pressure, nausea, headaches and muscle cramping.
Fluid Intake Recommendations
Prior to exercise you should consume approximately 16 ounces of fluid 2-3 hours before and 8 ounces 15 minutes before. During exercise it is recommended to consume 4 ounces of fluid every 15 – 20 minutes. Post activity 16-20 ounces of fluid should be consumed for every pound of sweat lost.
Sports drinks are designed to rehydrate provide energy and replenish the body’s electrolytes. Sports drinks also contain carbohydrates the body’s main source of energy. During prolonged exercise it is important to replace fluid lost in sweat. Athlete’s that will benefit most from a sports drink are those that exercise for longer than 60 minutes and are heavy sweaters.
What is it?
Human growth hormone (hGH) is a protein that is produced and stored within the pituitary gland, a part of the brain. It goes into the blood in pulses, resulting in fluctuating blood levels. Levels may be affected by age, gender, sleep, physical activity, stress, fever, steroids and environmental factors. HGH stimulates many metabolic processes in cells and the production of other hormones, such as insulin-like growth factor and somatomedin-C. These hormones help with cartilage production, the release of lipids from fat tissue and increased production of cell proteins. The overall effects are increased bone growth, more lean body mass and organ growth.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established guidelines for the proper use of hGH, used most commonly for hormonal deficiency that causes short stature in children. Off-label use has been abused by athletes and adults who hope to increase lean body mass and improve athletic performance. However, there has been no definitive evidence for improvements in strength or athletic performance.
A recent review of all the available studies provided evidence suggesting that healthy young athletes only increased body weight and lean body mass while decreasing fat mass after using hGH. There were limited effects on performance outcomes in relation to endurance and strength. Furthermore, it was suggested that fluid retention accounted for a large proportion of the increase in lean body mass.
There is a low risk for side effects in replacement doses that are close to the levels that the body naturally produces (0.003-0.004 mg/kg/day) for GH-deficient persons. The risk for adverse effects increases when higher than normal doses are prescribed, which include: increased pressure within the brain, elevated sugar levels, sugar in the urine, fluid retention, painful joints, painful muscles, breast enlargement in men and numbness/tingling in the extremities. Acromegaly (abnormal growth of the hands, face, and feet) is a serious side effect associated with large doses. Death from bone tumors and cardiovascular events have also been associated with high-dose use of hGH, correlating with a decreased life expectancy in users.
Sports Medicine Evaluation & Treatment
Growth hormone is listed on the banned list of substances by the World Anti-Doping Agency and continues to be on the list as of recent updates for 2018. Testing is performed through blood samples. hGH use does not have an immediate effect, in contrast to stimulant drugs. Rather, to be effective, it requires the user to inject doses right under the skin regularly for an extended period of time. Athletic abuse doses probably will range from 15 to 180 micrograms/kilogram, 3-4 times per week, for 4-6 weeks in a cycle. Testing is thus performed typically weeks to months in advance of competition, or after unexpected sporting victories are achieved.
Unless used under FDA-approved indications, the use of hGH should be avoided and discouraged. Prescriptions without a GHdeficiency diagnosis may constitute illegal prescribing.
AMSSM Member Authors
Scott Marberry, MD and George Pujalte, MD
Madden CC et al. “Drugs and Doping in Athletes.” Netter’s Sports Medicine, Elsevier, 2018. 182-183.
“Human Growth Hormone Testing.” https://www.wada-ama.org/en/questionsanswers/human-growth-hormone-hgh-testing. Accessed 11/30/2017.
Hermansen K et al. Impact of GH administration on athletic performance in healthy young adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Growth Hormone & IGF Research. June 2017. 34:38-44.
What is it?
Trench foot, also known as immersion foot syndrome, develops
when feet are cold and wet for prolonged periods of time
without the ability to warm or dry the skin. This can result
in pain, swelling, and numbness in the feet. This condition
received its name during the 1st World War as this became a
serious problem for soldiers on the battlefield, contributing to
tens of thousands of casualties.
Symptoms may include, but are not limited to, tingling, itching,
swelling, pain, coldness, numbness, pain, prickliness, and
blotchy skin. Blisters may form which eventually lead to skin and
soft tissue dying and sloughing off. In severe cases, an untreated
foot may involve the entire foot destroying not just the skin but
the soft tissues and bones of the feet. Exposure to extreme cold
may cause frostbite or gangrene to develop, which are both
devastating conditions with lifelong consequences and potential
disability if not treated immediately.
Sports Medicine Evaluation & Treatment
As the skin of the feet becomes macerated, the underlying
tissues are exposed to potentially infectious organisms. Skin
is the first line of defense and a protective barrier to bacteria,
fungi, and parasites. However, when the skin is compromised,
these organisms may infiltrate into the tissues deep to the skin
and cause infections. If there is any concern for an infection,
medical care should be sought out immediately as these
infections may penetrate into the blood stream, leading to
shock and death.
Your doctor should inspect the feet carefully. Typically the
diagnosis of a skin infection can be made clinically; however, lab
tests and cultures may be ordered to rule out infections within
the blood stream. X-ray and/or MRI tests are also sometimes
ordered if there is concern of infection deep to the skin or in
the bone. Your doctor may prescribe oral antibiotics if necessary
to treat a suspected infection. Some infections in the feet may
require hospitalization. Frostbite and gangrene may also require
hospitalization. Dead skin and tissues require debridement as
they serve as a nidus for infection and continued inflammation.
AMSSM SPORTS MEDICINE TOPICS
Patient Resource Courtesy of SportsMedToday.com.
Trench foot may be prevented by keeping feet dry. Wet shoes
and wet socks should be exchanged for dry ones. Shoes should
be well-fitted and not overly-tight. Keep feet clean and check
for any developing foot wounds at least once daily. Remove
socks and shoes whenever resting or sleeping to allow the
feet to air-dry. Athletes who tend to sweat profusely may
use an aluminum-containing antiperspirant on their feet to
prophylactically reduce the risk of trench foot.
Return to Play
Athletes may return to play when the feet are fully healed, the
skin is intact, and there are no signs or symptoms of infection.
Returning to play too early may not allow the skin to resume its
protective barrier for the body, leading to further irritation and
potential for infection.
AMSSM Member Author: Scott Marberry, MD
Fudge JR et al. Medical Evaluation for Exposure Extremes: Cold. Clin J Sport Med.
“Trench foot or Immersion Foot.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Last updated Jun 20, 2014. https://www.cdc.gov/disasters/trenchfoot.html
Atenstaedt, RL. Trench foot: the medical response in the First World War
1914–18. Wilderness & environmental medicine. 2006;17(4):282-289.
Schwartz RB, McManus JG, Swienton RE. Trench foot (immersion foot). Tactical
Emergency Medicine. Lippincott, Williams & Williams. 2008: 80.
We would like to announce our bumps and bruises clinic for the fall. Every Saturday morning during football season we will open our office for athletes who need injury evaluations. Our clinic is staffed by sports medicine trained physicians, Dr. Ross Osborn, Dr. Scott Marberry and Dr. Tod Northrup.
The Center for Health and Sports Medicine
115 Bartram Oaks Walk, #104
St. Johns, FL 32259
(Located in the Bartram Oaks Walk Center)
(Note: While evaluation and recommendations for treatment are free, any treatments, advanced diagnostics, bracing or casting are not, and will be subject to professional fees if a patient so chooses.)